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Thread: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

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    Default What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    Assalam Alaikum

    Lately I came to know that the Quran today exists in 7 different Qiraats or readings and that all seven of them are being taught at Islamic madarsas.

    What is the nature of the difference between these readings? Are these Qiraats merely different styles of reading the Quran, such that reciters of the seven qiraats would all be able to recite in their particular style from the same written text or is it a difference of pronunciation of the sounds of the various Arabic letters (like duad pronounced as zuad, as in the Indian subcontinent) or is it a difference in pronunciation of words (like mlk can be pronounced as maliki or muliki or miliki etc) or is it a case of the presence of the some words in one reading and their absence in another.

    If you have researched and sorted out this issue then help me out.
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    Default Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    Quote Originally Posted by xrillionaire View Post
    Assalam Alaikum

    Lately I came to know that the Quran today exists in 7 different Qiraats or readings and that all seven of them are being taught at Islamic madarsas.

    What is the nature of the difference between these readings? Are these Qiraats merely different styles of reading the Quran, such that reciters of the seven qiraats would all be able to recite in their particular style from the same written text or is it a difference of pronunciation of the sounds of the various Arabic letters (like duad pronounced as zuad, as in the Indian subcontinent) or is it a difference in pronunciation of words (like mlk can be pronounced as maliki or muliki or miliki etc) or is it a case of the presence of the some words in one reading and their absence in another.

    If you have researched and sorted out this issue then help me out.
    Please refer to the following:

    http://www.monthly-renaissance.com/i...nt.aspx?id=571

    Please read the attached appendices as well.

    As a side note, the references link seem sto be confirmed by modern archaeological ecxcavations as well. Early Quranic scripts found on such things as rocks, reveals the use of orthography, which rejects the view that the orthography was introduced later on to sttandradize a reading. The Quran was obviously revealed in one standard dialect, the languae of Quraysh, which was the common language of all of Arabia.
    "Those who deny the strength of truth,
    God does not give them courage." - Bulleh Shah

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    Lightbulb Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    May Allah be pleased with you Sister Ihsan . Indeed great & reliable source . I was just thinking : how on earth am I going to translate the answer into English ??!! You saved me the trouble , Jazaki Allah Khairan .

    May I just point out that the Qiraat are different from recitation : we recite the Holy Quran following one certain Qiraa ( Some learn more than one Qiraa) . There are only ten qiraats but many many recitors . For instance I have learned Quran by heart following the Qiraa of Hafs حفص عن عاصم . Inshallah I intend to recite the Quran in the ten Qiraats .

    I do not know how to put it more clearly >> is it clear like that ??

    You may want to check this link , if you please :
    http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Text/Qiraat/


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    Default Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    You may find this helpul as well

    http://www.altafsir.com/index.asp

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    Default Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    As salamu `alaykum,

    With all due respect, the following link represents the more standard, classical view held by Qur'anic exegesis and people of tajwid for the past 1,200 years:

    http://islamthought.wordpress.com/20...-of-the-quran/

    I also highly recommend An Approach to the Qur'anic Sciences by Mufti Taqi Usmani, which is a masterful summary of the subjects related to ulum al-Qur'an, which also answers your question and was written with the expressed intent to dispel the most common contemporary misunderstandings, which is especially relevant to this thread given that Mufti Taqi Usmani is a Pakistani scholar and the previous article cited represents a contemporary Pakistani school of thought. The book more directly addresses the misconception that the ahruf and qira'at are synonymous, which seems to be the basis upon which the article Ihsan quoted revolves. If I can find an online copy of it, I will be sure to post it, in sha Allah.

    And Allah knows best.
    "Allah is the point. If it is other-than-Allah, then it is besides the point." - Nuh Ha Mim Keller

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    Default Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    Quote Originally Posted by خادمة الإسلام View Post
    May Allah be pleased with you Sister Ihsan
    “None of you truly believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.”

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    Default Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    Please refer to the following:

    http://www.monthly-renaissance.com/i...nt.aspx?id=571

    Please read the attached appendices as well.
    With all due respect, the following link represents the more standard, classical view held by Qur'anic exegesis and people of tajwid for the past 1,200 years:

    http://islamthought.wordpress.com/20...-of-the-quran/

    The articles cited offer totally different views. Ihsan I was not able to access the appendices. Can you please post them here.


    I also highly recommend An Approach to the Qur'anic Sciences by Mufti Taqi Usmani, which is a masterful summary of the subjects related to ulum al-Qur'an, which also answers your question and was written with the expressed intent to dispel the most common contemporary misunderstandings, which is especially relevant to this thread given that Mufti Taqi Usmani is a Pakistani scholar and the previous article cited represents a contemporary Pakistani school of thought. The book more directly addresses the misconception that the ahruf and qira'at are synonymous, which seems to be the basis upon which the article Ihsan quoted revolves. If I can find an online copy of it, I will be sure to post it, in sha Allah.

    Ihsan's article does not treat the ahruf and qirat as the same. Rather, it seems to reject both! It only recognises what it calls the Qir‘āt al-‘Āmmah (the universal reading) which I understand to be the Hafs qiraat.

    As far as my question was was concerned, I think that recitors of the different qirat would not be able to read in their respective ways from one mushaf because of the actual mismatch of words between the qirat.

    The classical viewpoint seems more interested in trying to unify the various recitations by claiming that all the different qiraat have mutawatir chains of narrations extending upto the Prophet (saw) but the other article clearly shows that these chains are mutawatir only uptill their respective qaris. Moreover it was ironical to know that many of these qaris are not deemed fit for reporting hadith.


    May I just point out that the Qiraat are different from recitation : we recite the Holy Quran following one certain Qiraa ( Some learn more than one Qiraa) . There are only ten qiraats but many many recitors . For instance I have learned Quran by heart following the Qiraa of Hafs حفص عن عاصم . Inshallah I intend to recite the Quran in the ten Qiraats .
    After going through both the articles I feel that it is more reasonable to conclude that there is only one qirat of the quran. So you should remain content with what you have learnt.
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    Default Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    Quote Originally Posted by lumumba_s View Post
    The book more directly addresses the misconception that the ahruf and qira'at are synonymous, which seems to be the basis upon which the article Ihsan quoted revolves. .
    Actually, that is your fundamental misunderstanding, as xrillionaire pointed out. In fact, the article clearly delineates the idea that 'ahruf' and 'qira'at' are regarded as synonymous is not true. In fact, it is one of the clear objections to the notion of 'ahruf', because Imam Suyuti himself, as the article points, ultimately regards 'ahruf' as 'mutashabihat', because there is countless opinions of scholars, Suyuti saying over 40, on what exactly they are. Further, Imam Suyuti himself, I believe, acknowledges the 'readings' of the Quran are NOT mutawaatir, with the exception of the Hafs, with the implication being, these readings cannot be considered Quran, for the Quran itself is mutawattir.

    Ultimately, nobody really knows what 'ahruf' are, and the 'qira'at' themselves aren't even seven, but number more. Further, these recitors are unacceptable in hadeeth, let alone the transmission of the Quran.

    The contradictions are so obvious, I don't know how anybody can deny them.

    As I stated before, archaeological evidence is actually confirming the point I was making. The 'voweling' of the Quran has been conclusively shown to he much earlier, even to the point of the rule of Umar, than what was originally projected, which was the rule of Uthman during his earlier years.
    Last edited by ihsan; 6th February 2009 at 16:35.
    "Those who deny the strength of truth,
    God does not give them courage." - Bulleh Shah

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    Default Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    Ihsan's article does not treat the ahruf and qirat as the same. Rather, it seems to reject both! It only recognises what it calls the Qir‘āt al-‘Āmmah (the universal reading) which I understand to be the Hafs qiraat.
    Wa salaam,

    You are correct, and ibn Sirin, the famous tabi'een, even calls it that I believe. Hafs is the reading that is where all the Companions settled. Hafs is the Qir'at al-Ammah.

    As far as the appendices, I am having trouble with the site. But you should be able to access them under Important Articles. If you search by authors, please refer to Shehzad Saleem, and underneath the listing you will find the Appendices for this article, which I believe total 4. They are very essential to this article. They include criticisms of certain narrators in the books, among them a very famous one, ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri, who transmits a lot of these strange hadeeth from which ideas about 'ahruf' originate from. In fact, the more I have researched hadeeth from Zuhri, the more even I question him. It is in his narrations that one finds a lot of hiw own insertions into narrations, such as claims like the Prophet (S) became 'suicidal' when revelation ceazed temporarily. These type of hadeeth all seem to be a product of his strange mind, or narrations from sources he does not want to give the source from.
    "Those who deny the strength of truth,
    God does not give them courage." - Bulleh Shah

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    Lightbulb Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    The ten qiraats are different from the seven Ahruf. I have found reliable sources & detailed explanations in Arabic , but it will take me some time to arrange them in English . Inshallah the mystery will be solved .

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    Default Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    Quote Originally Posted by خادمة الإسلام View Post
    The ten qiraats are different from the seven Ahruf. I have found reliable sources & detailed explanations in Arabic , but it will take me some time to arrange them in English . Inshallah the mystery will be solved .

    Nobody is saying that they are the same. You have perhaps misunderstood us.
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    Lightbulb Re: What exactly are the different Qiraat?

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    I was wondering why Qiraat appear to be such a problematic issue . After going through all the reliable sources & resources I could reach , it turned out to be indeed a thorny subject . It is only God's Mercy that helped me come out with my faith intact , . I put within your reach what I have concluded to , not saying that this is the best reply , but it is simply my very best . In the Name of Allah do I start :

    * The Ahruf are different from Qiraat .

    * There are ONLY 7 Ahruf but up to 14 Qiraat ( even more )

    * The Ahruf are what you may call in Eng : aspects أوجه . What are these 7 aspects : well they are connected with grammar or lexical rules in Arabic ; that is Alnahw & Alsarf النحو و الصرف & Al-erab الإعراب & other rules . In short , they are seven aspects hard to explain in Eng (at least for me ) because they are connected with the properties of the Arabic languages which have no equivalents in the foreign ones ( those studying Arabic may understand )

    * The Qiraat may amount to 14 or more , but the major & most reliable of which are 7 still in use . For those who learn the science of Qiraat , they stop at number ten and that is it . An example is the famous Qiraa of Hafs an Asem : حفص عن عاصم

    * To make it more conceivable : let's imagine a circle . This circle represent Ahruf ( the 7 aspects ) . The centre of the circle represent th Qiraat . The centre of the circle ie emitting rays . The rays spread only within the circle . Hence , all the various Qiraat are limited within those seven aspects .

    * Another example : In Arab countries we have three famous kinds of cheese : white , istanboli & roumie . All these various types fall within the same category : cheese . All the various ways of Qiraa fall in one of theses 7 categories .

    * No matter how many variations there are , they are all limited within these seven categories or aspects .


    * then , where did this seven Ahruf came from ? Why ? & can this be taken as a proof that the Quran -God Forbid- has been falsified or altered ??!! Please keep reading patiently if you wish to know the answers .

    * The seven Ahruf were revealed to the Prophet through Gabriel by the command of God . There are over ten Hadith Sahih حديث صحيح from Bukhari , Muslim , Mustadrak & Musnad Amhad telling us that the Ahruf were reavelation from Allah to the Prophet , not some modern invention or Bidaa بدعة

    I do not Know how to get the English translation of those Hadithes , so I just put them in Arabic ( in case anyone can help ) and the general meaning in English ( my cracked Eng so please bear with me & keep reading)

    All those Hadithes revolve around the same story that the companions sometimes heard pronunciation of words or Qiraa in general different from that they heard from the Prophrt directly . the other side who are reading in another Qiraa are also companions and said they had heard the Prophet directly reciting like that . What would the companions do ?? Quite obvious , immediately rush to the Prophet .

    These companions mentioned in the Hadithes are all relaible & trustworthy of course : Abu Bakr , Omar , Hisham bin Hakim , Ubai Bin Kaab , Amru , Zaid , ...

    The first story with Omar & Hishm about Surat Alfurqan . They went to the Prophet , he listened to each of them at a time , then said (not quoting)
    It was revealed like this (meaning with these Qiraat) This Quran have been revealed in Seven Ahruf , read what you can ( again my translation is not precise )
    " هكذا أنزلت ، إن هذا القرآن أنزل على سبعة أحرف فاقرؤوا ما تيسر منه
    "

    Another story with Ubai . When he heard two men in the Masjid reciting in two Qiraat unlike his . They went to the Prophet , he listened to each of them and he approved all of them . The interesting here is that Ubai had a flashing tinge of ... doubt ! The Merciful Prophet understood from his look what was struggling inside him . He gently ...poked ( this may not be the correct word ) him in the chest and said that it was him ( the prophet ) who asked Allah for those Ahruf , and was granted seven (ways of reciting) . Why ?? this comes later , don't rush me !

    فقال لي : يا أُبَيّ ، أرسل إلي أن إقرأ القرآن على حرف ، فرددت إليه أن هوِّن على أمتي ، فرد إلى الثانية : اقرأه على حرفين ، فرددت إليه أن هون على أمتي ، فرد إلي الثالثة أن اقرأه على سبعة أحرف ..."

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    Lightbulb Why this variation ??


    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    Why ?

    There are many reasons , but I will only mention one that is the most important and may concern us .

    The Arab nation at that time in the Arabian peninsula was made up of many tribes قبائل , and even some of these tribes consisted of smaller ones called butoon بطون ( correct translation needed ! ) . Prophet Muhammad , peace be upon him , was not only sent to all these tribes & sub-tribes ( I coined this word ) but to the whole world which , of course , has other nations beside the Arab . Furturmore , there are sounds in Arabic that cannot be pronounced in the other foreign languages ; that is , they have no equivalents .

    To get the extreme variation in dialects within the Arab nation itself , it may be helplful to know that Egyptians for instance cannot easily understand Khaliji ( from the Arabian peninsula ) dialects , nor the Moroccan . Even within the Arabian peninsula the dialects notably vary from one country to another . Even in Egypt , there is the Caireen , the Alexandrian , the Asuti & many other dialects .

    It comes , then , as a valid reason to have various Qiraats to correspond to the varieties of the Arab nation and the difference of the world languges and tongues .

    We can trace this reason in the Hadithes

    " هون على أمتي "
    Make it easy for my Ummah (nation)


    " أسأل الله معافاته و مغفرته ، إن أمتي لا تطيق ذلك "
    ... My nation will not bear up with that .


    " يا جبريل ، إني أرسلت إلى أمة أمية فيهم الرجل و المرأة و الغلام و الجارية و الشيخ الفاني الذي لم يقرأ كتابا قط "
    Gabriel ! I was sent to an illiterate nation ( Ummi ) , amongst which there are men , women , boys , girls & even the aging sheik who never read a book at all


    It may be helpful to mark out that although there are Caireen , Alexandrian ,... etc. dialects , they all belong to the SAME broader Egyptian dialect going under Arabic language . It is easy however to distinguish these dialects depite belonging to the same category . This shows how varieties can matter even within the same country . So how about different countries in the same region , or different regions in the world ??

    The smae goes for Qiraats which are piled under the Arabic language . There are variations in recitation , uttering sounds , tone , intonation but are all Arabic . Just like varieties within all other languages .


    Last edited by Guidance; 8th February 2009 at 07:19.

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    Lightbulb Keep In Mind ( Very IMPORTANT )


    I have gone through many many examples of variations & Qiraats , but all in all , the eternal truth remains intact : these variations do not by any means affect the coherence of the Quran . Without going through many details , it is enough to observe that Islam around the globe is the same . Ahkam (laws) of Halal & Haram , Prohibited or allowed , Wajib , makruh or even permitted under conditions ; all are the same and cannot be trifled with or altered .

    Furthurmore , these variations were revealed from ALLAH All-Mighty Himself . Prophet Muhammad was NOT allowed to put them himself . If Quran is claimed to be falsified - God Forbid - this refutes the claim ( other refutations are yet to come )

    In that case , what a Muslim should do concerning the varieties in Qiraat ? The Prophet , peace be upon him , answers :

    إن هذا القرآن أنزل على سبعة أحرف ، فاقرأوا ما تيسر منه
    ( Hurray ! I got a precise translation from Al-Bukahri )
    " This Quran has been revealed to be recited in seven different ways , so recite of it whichever way is easier for you ( or read as much of it as may be easy itself ) 6:514-O.B


    " فأي ذلك قرأتم أصبتم فلا تماروا فيه "
    ( Warning : not precise ) Whichever of these ways you read , you are correct , so do not quarrel (or debate ) about it or doubt it


    " فانطلقنا إلى رسول الله .. فتغير وجهه و قال : إنما أهلك من قبلكم الاختلاف " ثم أسر إلى علي شيئا فقال علي : إن رسول الله يأمركم أن يقرأ كل رجل كما علم "
    When the companions argued about it The prophet became upset & said : Those nations before you went astray and deserved God's wrath for quarreling a lot . Then he told Ali to tell them that : The Prophet commands that each one of you read as he was taught (not precise at all )

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    Lightbulb Finally : Refutations of the claim of falsifying The Quran


    Lastly : The Refuations of that claim
    ( There are already two above )



    3) Quran is definitely from God . God told us that us : " We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption). " Al-Hijr . It is enough , I believe , for a Muslim to know that God commanded or said something to believe & abide Immediately .

    4) We have various Qiraat within the same frame of the same Book , and the same content . We do not , for instance , have the Quran of Hafs or the Quran of Nafei نافع . We have the Quran of Allah , revealed to the Prophet . We have the Qiraat of Nafei & Hafs & ... that have been proved to have been approved of by the Prophet . ( in other words the reliable Qiraats proven to have dated back to the time of the Prophet , Like Sahih Hadith proven to have been said by him )

    5) Whoever argues that Quran is not the Word of Allah but of Muhammad - God Forbid - this is a good timing to refute this briefly :

    * Despite these variations in Qiraat or the seven Ahruf , The Quran still maintained its coherence for over 14 or 15 centuries . It is still understandable without any thing out of place . If anyone is able to go through the abundant examples of variations , he will recognize that this is not intended only to facilitate , but also to prove that Quran is the Word of Allah , and manifest another miracle & inimitability of the Quran .

    If Quran was indeed a fuman outcome , it could not have retained its appeal & applicability in such a flowing reasonable way . It is cleary the Word of the Creator who knows very well what is understandable & believable for the minds and hearts of His creatures .



    * Surat Al-Masad is another conclusive evidence . This Sura was revealed during the lifetime of Abu Lahab , not after his death . It dooms him to eternal Hell . Well , Abu Lahab could just embrace Islam - even if pretending -to indicate that Muhammad is - God forbid - a liar ! But Abu Lahab died as a Kafer & did not convert . How could the Prophet have been so sure that Abu Lahab would nover convert to Islam ?? It must be from the only Power in the whole universe who can know the unknown , predict all future because He KNOWS all future , past & present ... Who could it be but God ??!!!!



    We'll have to leave it there because we could just continue forever .

    That is the best I could present . If I am right , it can only come from Allah " In Him I Trust, and unto Him I look " . If I commit a mistake , it is my own flaw , I ask God to forgive me .

    Peace be ipon you all ,

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