yes, but Riba is a well-known Arabic term which was understood perfectly to mean any excess over the original principal, so it does cover all sorts of loans where interest is charged.The reason why the Koran condemned Jews use of usury is not just about Europe, this practice the Jews had is embeded in the Talmud. The Koran condemned the Talmud and so did Jesus in the Gospel. Both the Koran and Jesus confirmed the Torah and previous scriptures.
this is again contextual. In a society, there are always some rules to prevent disorder and hurting others' emotions. Otherwise, there was no need to cleanse Arabia of polytheism.The Koran does give freedom to mock, it repeatedly orders the prophet that if he hears people mock God's scriptures that he should abstain from them and avoid them.
"He has already revealed to you in the Scripture, that when you hear the signs of Allah held in defiance and ridicule, you are not to sit with them unless they turn to a different theme. If you did, you would be like them..." (Qur'an 4:140)
[The Noble Quran 6:68] If you see those who mock our revelations, you shall avoid them until they delve into another subject. If the devil causes you to forget, then, as soon as you remember, do not sit with such evil people
you're all mixed up here- 5:33-34 clarify quite clearly that capital punishment is also for haraba, and here it means not war between two parties but spreading anarchy in the society, which would include rampant prostitution. For war, I agree Quran does not promote slavery anywhere..The Koran stipulates that only for intentional murder can capital punisment be administered but it allows for a lower ceiling like exile from the community. Muslim authorities claimed that the verses about capital punishment is talking about "haraba", which means warfare. If its warfare the they ae prisoners of war. The Koran gave two options for prisoners of war, freedom or ransom of some sort. Later Muslim authorities introduce two more criteria, enslavement of female prisoners and capital punishment. Slavery is acts performed by tyrants in the Koran like the Pharoah and Joseph's brothers, while the execution of prisoners violates the Koran conmmands. The Koran placed prisoners in the category of charity and ordered the prophet to console them and protect them.
Alcohol is not prohibited due to any Hadith but directly in the Quran itself (5:90) - it is an abomination devised by satan. My comparing it with idol-worship is precisely because a rational argument can be made about idol-worship too just like you make the case for alcohol here. As for the punishment for drinking, Quran being silent on it doesnt mean taht the Prophet (pbuh) or later Muslims cannot devise something about it, though that particular punishment doesnt acquire the status of Sharia.I am not sure what you mean about the alcohol part and as far as idol worshiping, the Koran says do not come near prayers when you are intoxicated and says alcohol has benefits and harm but its harm is worse. It also says that alcohol can be used by the devil to make us neglect our prayers and create animosity between us. All of this can be avoided if alcohol mis used moderately and responsibly. Muslim authorities howver came with lashing hadiths and also with some hadith that says alcohol consumers are cursed, their is also a hadith that says even a drop of alocohol is haram. So the Koran looks at alcohol in terms of what it can lead to while Muslim authorities see it as an end by itself.
Who gave the prophet authority to persecute and lash people for drinking alcohol and why should a person who drinks alcohol be cursed? There are believers who drink alcohol and they are disbelievers who drink alcohol. Alcohol doe not give any indication about a person's faith or character, so why Should God look at it as such? What the Koran is worried about is how the devil can use a person when intoxicate to make him do things he other wise won't do. But the devil can use many tools like women, fame, fortune, fear, and also he can use the fear of poverty and in Adam's case he used false promises of eternity or superior creation.
I am surprised you compare this with idol worship.