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Thread: University or College Study:

  1. #16
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    This is my last post on the idea of incentives to learning.

    Shared Knowledge and Experiences – learning is not private, there is a whole community that you can access; a community that values learning and where you can give and take. There is a vast amount of information literally at your finger-tips and its all more or less free, a kind of gift to you from Socrates, Newton, Al Gazali, Hodja, Hawkin, Darwin, Churchill, Feynman, Turing, Von Neumann, the Beatles, Mozart, Bobby Moore, the list is endless and awe inspiring when we think of such giants gifting their thinking to us (you)! In these posts you will see the word ‘share’ used many times and it’s a vital aspect of learning and living. One might recall what the Dali Lama said “share your knowledge; it’s a way to achieve immortality”.

    If you examine the latest research in social grouping of various kinds, you will learn that we are all influenced by those around us and also more surprisingly those around them. It’s as if a virus is let loose so good humour and kindness can spread through a group just as much as grumpiness and unkindness. So be mindful of your social grouping and inject good things into it and its more or less certain you will be rewarded.

    Life Long – learning stays with you throughout life and it touches all parts of your life and in general enhances its quality because it opens a wide window on what life is about and how it’s to be enjoyed and made useful.

    Expanded Choices – if you learn well and become educated then that will give you more choices in what worlds you can enter, jobs you can do, what people you get to know, what clubs or organisation you join, what entertainment you can experience, what good works you can do and so on. Put simply, a good education expands your horizons and lets you live just that little bit more. It is not guaranteed of course as we cannot know what the future holds but it’s certain you will be better able to deal with whatever it might be.

    It is tempting to think that life is fully defined in much the same way as Ohms law, Archimedes principles or gravity is – they don’t change with time and no decision you make will allow you to avoid them. So for some, perhaps many people it’s as if the past fully defines their future and whereas it is obvious that our own past has some effect though it is not an iron law. In short the past is over, you cannot change it and whatever happened there cannot be undone. But the future is a different matter and YOU can make choices and therefore make a difference to your own life and that of others. So don’t stand idly by lamenting or praising the past make a choice and make a difference for good.

  2. #17
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Learning Model
    There are many views on how high quality learning can be achieved. However, there does seem to be good evidence to support the following learning model:

    Problem centred - in that the learning is guided by a problem-solving outlook.

    Learning Armoury - we all have a favourite way of studying but often this can stifle our learning because it stops us exploring other ways to learn. So what you need is not just one strategy but an armoury of them so that you are best able to meet any new challenge that comes your way without being locked into a possible learning method blind alley.

    Perseverance - in that students require, for high quality learning, persistent, consistent and directed effort, guided by the facilitator.

    Practice - is needed if true learning is to be achieved; meaning that students must work hard on their own, not turning for help as soon as they get stuck but trying again and again until understanding comes. If you immediately turn for help with every difficulty you will never grow intellectually.

    Progressive - in that the lessons are designed to build complex ideas from simple ones. The implication here is that it is absolutely essential that you know the basics of your subject otherwise you will be forever in trouble as things get more complicated. Sadly, some students skim the basics or ignore regarding them as too simple to be bothered with but that is a sure way to disaster.

    Private - in the sense that there is no need to be taught every element of a particular knowledge domain, rather the facilitator should guide the student and only intervene when genuinely difficult ideas/materials are involved.

    Public - or group learning because there is great value in learning in groups where we can exchange ideas, be open-minded, speak freely and build learning communities. This is often in the modern world facilitated by asynchronous on-line discussion boards and synchronous chat rooms.

    The overall philosophy of any successful learning strategy is to place the learner at the centre of a network of support structures and activities. Utilizing both synchronous and asynchronous collaborations with fellow learners as well as facilitators, and drawing upon the potential of the Internet to deliver information at any time to any place, the learner is empowered to structure and control their learning in a way that is uniquely suitable to them.

  3. #18
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Excellent Thread on learning.

    There is one satanic factor that was activated in the dawn of the last century that crippled education for ever.
    The unnamed group with power and influence to steer education world wide to it's line of thought and goals.
    Where is epistemology ?
    The mother and father to all learning the essence of Gnosis (the secular meaning)
    Most dictionaries don't even have this word anymore. I last saw it in a 50's version Oxford dictionary.
    It would not surprise me if it was reinstated in the dictionary just to gloat over it's demise

  4. #19
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Negotiation and Persuasion
    A good learner is not passive but seeks to find solution to all sorts of difficulties or obstacles and so must work with tutors and many others to get the best out of a situation in the time available. The difficulties might include class timings, the course notes, you may feel the work is too hard or too simple, you may not like the way it is taught, the equipment might be poor, group work not organised - the list is endless. There are a number of negotiation/persuasion strategies that might be employed.

    The win/win Approach – the suggestion is that agreement can be reached if concerned parties consider their underlying interests, requirements; possible decision consequences rather than stubbornly defending their own positions and so can often reach a decision that is mutually beneficial.

    Consequences Approach – any decision entails risk and so we can never be sure if our probability estimates are sound or not but what we can do is know about the consequences of each decision and that is often a better guide as to what to do. This of course is not a new idea and King Solomon in the Bible famously used it so deal with an argument between two women and one baby. This is sometimes called ‘creative’ because it challenges you to look at a range of alternatives where each party to an issue ends up with something.

    Advocacy – here one works with argument to obtain the most favourable outcome or at least the best alternative that is available. It is generally thought that good advocacy involves persuasion and that might be accomplished in many ways.
    We all need to become skilled in assembling our answers to questions and so one needs to learn about the way we assemble honestly evidence both for and against (you must learn and understand alternative arguments) and then use persuasion and argument to reach a valid conclusion. This is not a simple matter and cannot be just learned from text books, it has to be practiced.

    There are of course rules of logic and they will help us avoid contradictions, inconsistencies, exaggerations (in our own arguments) and you can easily look them up. But it might be a good idea to join an on line discussion board on a subject you are interested in and start adding your own thoughts, reading what other say, listening to what others say, refuting arguments, proposing your own arguments – get practicing.

    Be careful, this is not about you becoming a pain, not letting anybody else get a word in, thinking you are always right, you are always objective, calling other people by offensive names or insulting them, pestering people night and day. It’s about learning and sharing and taking a responsible attitude even when you profoundly disagree with someone. It is as well to take to heart and warning from Francis Bacon said:

    “The human understanding is not composed of dry light, but it is subject to influence from the will and the emotions, a fact that creates fanciful knowledge; man prefers to believe what he wants to be true.”

    Another point here is that negotiations need decisions at some point and in general it is best if those decisions are arrived at collectively, that way they have a chance of being fair by being more fully discussed. The only real exception to collective decision making is when the decisions requires some kind of expert opinion and in that case one seeks out a relevant expert to help you through the discussions. Finally, negotiating a better learning situation is not intended to make your learning effortless - if you think that then you have not understood a word I have said and you will never succeed because persistence in education is omnipotent.

  5. #20
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Here are eight suggested modes of persuasion where you can use just one or more than one but they will be of no value unless you know what your main premises area with clarity. These I think apply to writing or speaking.

    Mimic the mannerisms if the ones who are being persuaded.

    Framing or leading people to think about an issues or opinion in a way that is advantages to you. Instead of saying inheritance tax say its death tax if you oppose it

    Less is more; that is don’t give too many reasons to back up your argument as it can harden opinion against you and it is suggested that often two solid reasons or arguments are the most effective.

    Grind them down or nagging but do it with care and note the factor ‘less is more’

    The medium is the means and in the modern world you will not always be able to pick the most suitable means to negotiate and so you have to factor that into your planning so that you get the best available means.

    Style over substance so don’t hesitate or stumble or give them time to think and this means planning what it is you want to say before you say it. One must also exercise some humanity here as it’s not just a matter of getting what you want at any cost.

    Get them angry and feel a sense of injustice; essentially anger accompanied by the feeling that there is a solution to the problem then your message is more likely to be persuasive.

    Resistance is not futile – move toward a target bit by bit. Sometimes there will be a deadlock and so one might present a position closer to your target’s views and if you do that you are closing the gap but doing it little by little.

    Personally, I have found the mode 'less is more' to be the most useful.

    PS This is taken from a New Scientist article but I have lost the ref and when I find it I will adjust the post

  6. #21
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    I add another small note regarding the use of literature.

    Types of Literature Sources
    The available literature is classified broadly speaking into the two kinds described below and ideally in scholarly work one wants to use only primary sources.

    Primary Sources – the first published documents and usually this will mean journals, research papers, government or company reports that kind of thing and it is therefore not a good idea to focus too much on books in this category though tutors will normally accept them as authoritative but if you are on advanced course always seek out the journals as a fist port of call. One can be really pedantic and say the primary source is the author’s manuscript or autograph but we are satisfied with published sources. It will however, often be difficult to establish that something is indeed a primary source.

    Secondary Sources – in almost every document you see, there will be elements attributed to other authors; these are then secondary sources and it follows that most books fall into this category.

    Be careful not to confuse the above definition with those for primary and secondary data. When we talk of primary sources we are obviously referring to something that is published and exists whereas with primary data it will not exist as a collection until a researcher defines, locates and collects it. For clarity I offer a suitable definition.

    Primary Data
    Primary Data is data, is new data in the sense that it will not exist as a set until I (you) define, collect and record it at a given point in time. But it must be collected for a specific purpose in that the primary data set is representative of some aspect of the area under investigation and can be processed to get a defined Outcome that will resolve or partially resolve a stated problem theme when used by situation actors. All projects must be based on the collection and processing of primary data. Consider the following examples illustrating the above primary data idea for several problem areas.

    Example 1. Suppose I want as my project outcome to define all the various accounting functions so I pick up a manual for my in-house accounting system and then go though it looking for all the various accounting functions and listing them – is that primary data and is this a valid research purpose?

    No because in the first place one might just regard the manual as listing the functions anyway so in effect the data already exists, secondly, this is just one book and so its content might be complex, trivial or totally unrepresentative.

    Example 2. If I extract instances of phishing from an email log would that be primary data because clearly the email log (secondary data) exists.

    This looks fine because although the data exists in the log when I extract it I form a new data set that did not exits as an entity before.

    Example 3. If I conduct interviews in order to describe a user purpose regarding illegal software downloads in my company with selected employees would the interview transcripts be primary data?

    This is fine because clearly the transcripts could NOT have existed before I conducted the interview so it represents a new set of data. In practice one would go through all the transcripts later using text processing ideas and so arrive at a more structured and organised set of data.

    Example 4. If I look through written reports (secondary data) on security violations for a particular company with a view to identifying the root cause of each violation would that be primary data?

    This is fine even though the violation reports exist (secondary data) the list of root causes (my primary data) did not so it is primary data.

  7. #22
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    A tip for those at College or University, particularly if part of your course means doing a project or dissertation, is about asking questions and how important that activity is for the opening of ones mind and intellectual development. Some people are afraid of doubt, particularly people of a religious persuasion, preferring absolute certainty; but God has not made us like that. Doubt can be creative because it forces us to ask questions and seek the truth. Just think what the world would be like if no one had persisted and overcame their doubts and doggedly pursued them through questions; no penicillin, no electricity, no Internet and so on.

    I preface all these remarks by the best advice I ever got as a student.

    Prof Jacob Bronowski who said "it is important that students bring a certain ragamuffin, barefoot irreverence to their studies; they are not here to hero worship what is known but to question it". This advice is essentially about the joy of finding out it's not about you being ignorant and insulting your teachers or just arguing for arguments sake.

    Gregory Neal said said - I love questions. I love asking them and I love being asked ... if nothing else, they keep the brain juices flowing! No one should ever be afraid of questions; God certainly isn’t afraid of questions, and neither should we be afraid of them. If the beginning of wisdom is fear of the Lord – and it is – then the next step on the path to wisdom is being willing and able to say: "I don’t know." Only God is omniscient, and until we are willing to admit that we don’t know something, we’ll never be able to learn anything new. Think about that!

    I love being asked questions that stump me. Why? Because those kinds of questions make me dig, study, and learn something I didn’t know before. Even if I don’t find a satisfactory answer, it’s not a loss; I’ve opened my mind and learned something new. And that’s the essence of wisdom: being open to learning something new. The instant one closes their mind and refuses to learn something new – or thinks they already know "it" all – is the instant when they begin to die.

    Lloyd Alexander said - we learn more by looking for the answer to a question and not finding it than we do from learning the answer itself.

    Charles Steinmetz said - there are no foolish questions, and no one becomes a fool until you stop asking questions.

    Albert Einstein - said the important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reasons of existing. One cannot help but be in awe when one contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvellous structures of reality.
    One final point, asking questions means seeking the answers yourself from books, from experimentation, from research and asking other people, but don't start by asking other people begin this study by being persistent yourself. Often you will ask other people and they may give you an answer and some will become very annoyed if you do not accept it or want to explore it more deeply. Don't be put off by this and at the same time don't deliberately upset people who are trying to help you.

    One final warning is to be careful about using the Internet as all sorts of people with all sorts of motives post all sorts of things and usually there is no way for you to check the sources are reliable. There are also a large number of discussion boards like this one and often you will see answers to what are complex questions but again in general you cannot be certain of the reliability - that means of course you have to question and consider what I have said here not blindly accept it.

  8. #23
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Quote Originally Posted by ali View Post
    why was the professor using rasterferianm language?
    Prof Jacob Bronowski was a brilliant communicator and is most famous fir his TV series back in 1973 called the ascent of man. The most moving and most remembered scene was him standing in the mud of a concentration camp and holding it in his hands being aware he was picking up the remains of those murdered there and asking why?

  9. #24
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Academic Study and Wikepedia
    Let me be clear here, that in general one should not normally quote from it in serious academic work because its content may not be reliable and of course as you will know its content can change in unpredictable ways. However, it would be a mistake to assume that anything we find there must be wrong or suspect. Every academic in the world uses Wikipedia, every day because its coverage is so vast.

    1. What I and other academics say is that if one is beginning a scholarly review it is invariably a very good place to start and more often than not it has a very full bibliography and subject outline (if not then forget it).

    2.There are a huge number of things where no universal agreed definition or something is regarded as obvious or common knowledge. In such cases it is permissible to use Wikepedia if for no other reason that it is available. In such cases one just says something like "Wikipedia offers the following definition...". For example, no less a luminary that J. Craig Venter, who famously last year created artificial life, gave a TV broadcast lecture in London where he used a quote from Wikipedia. Similarly, suppose you wanted to write about the notion of “best practice” then it is acceptable to define it as you want or use Wikipedia to do it because there is no agreed meaning to this term. Where it becomes wrong is when you are quoting say a theory or reporting what someone said or did and in such a cases you should go to the primary source or at least as close as you can get to it.

    The one area of Wikipedia that needs especial care is with biographies, especially if they are of living people since there are plenty of people out there who would like to distort what is said, so I would NEVER quote from them or rely on them except perhaps to get some back ground information to start a study.

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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Betrayal of Your Teachers
    I wonder if you find this heading puzzling. One might also ask what you think the sign of a great teacher is supposed to be? Some years ago Peter Rollins in his book ‘The Orthodox Heretic’ lucidly explained what great teachers want more than anything for their students; his answer is both startling and profound. All great teachers want to nurture their students in order that they may surpass them but for this to happen, an uncomfortable separation must take place at some point between the student and the teacher. An authentic teacher is one who at some point asks his students to prove their devotion by finding their own way, to stop following them and move beyond the lessons and wisdom learned from them to finally take responsibility for their own future path.

    This is a strange paradox, for it is only by following the teacher that one will take any notice of his injunction not to follow. Yet these words, fully grasped, set the student free, to apply his learning in ever new and innovative ways. This is not a betrayal in the sense of a rejection or blind fidelity that seeks to live by the letter of the law laid down by the teacher. Rather, this is an enthusiastic move beyond the teacher in response to the teacher can be described as a faithful betrayal.

    The great teacher is one who says, "You will do greater things than I" All teachers stay only for a season so that their words act as bridge to learning, not become a blockage to it and so that their iconic presence does not morph into an idolatrous one. Strangely then, a total and complete fidelity to a teacher, an unthinking devotion to his teaching, will always end up being nothing but a betrayal.
    Last edited by Hawkeye; 28th May 2011 at 12:16.

  11. #26
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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Learning Blindness
    I have adapted a parable called Blindness from the book the Orthodox Heretic by Peter Rollins. The learning journey in many ways is a passage from darkness into light, from blindness into sight. But within this there is a paradox - the late filth-century theologian Pseudo-Dionysus, said the more we attend to the source of our knowledge, the more we realize how little we know. Some have described it as being like closing one’s eyes so that you are enabled to see. You may find this hard to make sense of but it implies that when we learn, when we gain knowledge it can make us feel certain and that certainty can become arrogance and will close our minds, believing somehow we have made it, if we let it.

    This idea can be seen in the life of Socrates, who is said to have been the wisest person in all of Greece, even though he claimed to be ignorant; I his own words if I have any authority it is based on the certain knowledge that I know nothing and a related thought knowledge will not come from teaching but from questioning. His wisdom did not come from squandering his ignorance, but rather from knowing his ignorance and deepening it. Every student is aware there is an unknowing that comes from laziness and lack of discipline, the unknowing of Socrates sprang from a lifetime of study, reflection, and dialogue, he knew there was more to learn, much much more..

    We can also see this idea of a knowing unknowing at work in the life of Thomas Aquinas, perhaps the greatest of the medieval philosophers. It is said that, while celebrating Mass in 1273, he underwent an intense mystical experience and upon leaving the church he proclaimed All my works seem like straw after what I have seen. He then set aside the work he had been undertaking on his Summa believing it to be utterly incapable of describing the wonder that he had encountered.

    In these examples, we witness the idea that true learning is often born from an event that is so luminous we are left dazzled by its incoming - an event so deep that we are saturated by it, so vast that we are dwarfed by it, and so bright that we are blinded by it. The city Urumqi in China is about 1,500 miles from any ocean – imagine what it would be like if you lived in that city and had only seen a few ponds or lakes; you might think you know what oceans are like but when you eventually see one, it is totally mind boggling. The more you learn, the more you understand how much more there is and that brings a joy in learning and a humility about your own knowing that rejoices in the knowing of others because they bring and share the new with you.

    The Tartar tribes of central Asia used to pronounce a certain curse over their enemies. They didn't hurl words calling for their enemy's swords to rust or their people to die of disease. No, they said, May you stay in one place forever: If you don't know yourself or work on improving yourself every day that could be your fate.

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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Learning and knowledge
    Are gifts that must be treasured not regarded as prizes to be won or simply a means to an end; so love learning for its own sake. Always be ready to encourage when you see learning in others and see it as a spur to greater personal effort not being afraid to abandon old learning strategies even though they might work but always on the lookout for new ones or improvements to old ones. Recognise that self esteem comes from knowing that you honestly worked hard and put real effort into something not in seeking constant praise for achievement.

    There is a very odd phenomena; if you ask students “do they value success” unsurprisingly they will say “yes”. Similarly, if you ask “do they think effort is necessary for success” they will also say “yes”. However, if you try to correlate these two responses for a group of students it almost always turns out to be zero; implying that although they value success they do not value at all the effort needed to get it – in other words the only thing that matters is success. Sadly, such an attitude is destructive to ones personality and to use an analogy it would be like saying only the gold medal winners in the Olympics are any good, and if you are not one of them then you are rubbish. Sadly, our teachers and parents are very good at praising and rewarding success but very poor at doing the same for effort as if the success cost you nothing and that is I think a bad attitude.

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    Reflection
    Is seen as an essential learning tool and it is tied in to our emotions and feelings because whilst taking time out to look back it can also be a bit painful because it can often disturb our certainties. The trouble with certainties is they can shut our minds down and we stop reflecting (because we are afraid we might lose our certainty) and this cuts off the possibility of new insights and learning that might follow.

    Learning demands one to slow down from time to time and reflect because any learning may be totally new or require that you modify what you already know or even get rid of what you know in its entirety. This can be very hard, a struggle to do even traumatic that is why one needs to slow down to give you some time to absorb the learning. But one also needs to understand that this ‘time out’ also allows you to enjoy the moment, the now as one savours (just like good food) what it is you have learned.

    It is interesting to consider how the brain works here and the very latest research suggests that as soon as you stop focusing on the particular it switches over automatically into a self-reflective mode, it’s as if the brain is daydreaming but at the same time sorting things out for itself. Indeed when the brain is in this daydreaming state it actually consumes more energy that when focusing on a given problem or topic. It follows, that it is a good idea to take breaks from learning to give your brain time to sort out all the information that has been passing into it; in fact if you don’t do it deliberately the brain will do it for you and you will find your thoughts wandering or suddenly wake up because you have fallen asleep.

    So try taking a walk, read a novel, do some gardening, chat to your neighbour, play table tennis at lunch time, read a newspaper, have a cup of coffee, go for a swim, listen to music and so on the list is endless. As the English saying goes “all work and no play make Jack a dull boy” but all play an no work just means your wasting a golden opportunity.

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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Expectation of one’s Tutors
    It goes without saying that one expects the Tutor to be thoroughly knowledgeable, experienced and current in the subject being taught otherwise it’s is not really possible to have confidence in what they say by way of academic lessons, guidance and feedback. However, over and above these one can expect and in a real sense demand kindness, sympathy, encouragement and the respect that goes with simple humanity in the way you are treated – not to act in this way means the Tutors has failed you.

    These qualities are not conditional but they are not to be strained and rendered worthless by a careless, irresponsible and lazy attitude to learning - that would be to ‘bite the hand that feeds you’ and to reject in this way a dedicated and genuine relationship with your tutor is perhaps the saddest of all attitudes to find in a student and in a very real sense but not academic sense; the student has failed. One might also say here that your tutors will hold the subject in high esteem and care very deeply about its content and quality and if they are aware that a student is careless, unconcerned or contemptuous in learning they might find that attitude offensive and unworthy and that may well strain their natural sympathetic tendencies because such a student attitude wastes valuable academic time.

    One might say here that a Tutor must and usually does know what he has to do to enable learning to take place; however, that does not mean they can do it. But in the same way there is no excuse for a student not knowing what they have to do and turning that lack of knowledge into blame. A good tutor will give you the necessary resources including a syllabus, notes and reading lists and will offer guidance and feedback as learning progresses but they can never tell students every next step to take and therefore there is a responsibility on students to know what they have to do and do it.

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    Default Re: University or College Study:

    Awareness
    In all learning there is an element of serendipity, but whilst it is important to recognise that leaning can occur at any time or place a good learner will understand and take serious steps to be systematic so their work is structured and organized rather than haphazard and lazy. Additionally, they will also see clearly that their work has to be systemic as well so that every part contributes to and helps every other part. In this respect as long as you are good enough (in the sense that you are prepared for it, you have got up to that level) to get onto a course then if you make the effort, put in the required hours of work, you can succeed at the very highest levels.

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